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X-ray spectroscopy

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X-ray spectroscopy is a technique that is used to find the action of inner electrons of atoms. X-rays can be connected in many ways when it strikes an object. They can be diffused or cause light, and they can be photoelectrically engaged. Medical X-rays, security screening and scattered X-rays are the basis for absorption. These are used to figure crystal structure. when the object is exposed to the primary sources the fluorescence becomes the secondary x-rays. Fluorescence becomes the formation of the secondary X-rays. The elements in the object and the intensity of each depends on the concentration, the wavelength of these secondary X-rays matters. Analytical XRF could be the main basis for these. [1]

Uses

wavelength that shows through spectroscopy

Spectroscopy is used as a tool to study atoms and molecules. The wavelength that shows in the spectroscopy indicates the structures of the atoms and molecules, as well as the electron configuration of ground and other states. In material having unknown chemical composition, Spectroscopy is able to find the component because it provides an absolute analytical method. Through emission spectrum, it detects a consolidation of a small parts per million of element. Spectroscopy is a tool that is used to find the composition, vibration frequencies, and molecular structure of a substance. It is also used to find the reactants and its functions. Spectroscopy helps to estimate the energy levels of the ions and chemical system. It also helps in understanding the structure design and the configuration of the chemical shifts. [2]

Physicists and chemists use spectroscopy to determine the light waves. The spectrum is the data that is given from the spectroscopy. A spectrum is the light wave that is detected by spectroscopy. It can be used to gain information about the molecular energy levels and interaction with the chemical bonds. [3] Spectroscopy can observe two distinctive classes of spectra; these closes are continuous and discrete. Continuous spectra are thick lines and consists of multiple colors and discrete spectra are one single lines that are solid colors. Continuous spectra comes from gases and solid objects that radiates heat. Discrete spectra results from physics of atoms. [2]

Types of Spectroscopy

The X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometer

Astronomical Spectroscopy Energy from celestial objects is used to analyze their chemical composition, density, pressure, temperature, magnetic fields, velocity, and other characteristics.

Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Energy absorbed by the sample is used to assess its characteristics.

Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy Attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy and the related technique are used to determine coatings and opaque liquids.

Electron Paramagnetic Spectroscopy It is used to determine structures of samples containing unpaired electrons.

Electron Spectroscopy To measure the changes in electronic energy levels.

Gamma-ray Spectroscopy Gamma radiation is the energy source in this type of spectroscopy.

Infrared Spectroscopy Infrared spectroscopy is used to figure out the number of absorbing molecules.

Laser Spectroscopy Laser spectroscopes provide information about the interaction of coherent light with matter.

Mass Spectrometry A mass spectrometer source produces ions.

Multiplex or Frequency-Modulated Spectroscopy Each optical wavelength is being recorded which conceal to an audio frequency having the original wavelength information.

Raman Spectroscopy Raman scattering of light provides information on a sample's chemical composition and molecular structure. [4] [5]

History

German Physicist Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen

The beginning of X-ray spectroscopy goes back to 1895 when a German Physicist, Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen, accidentally discovered x-rays. During his studies with cathode rays that consisted of gaseous-discharge tube and high voltage, he found out about the fluorescent light in the tube. However, the discovery of Roentgen's x-rays didn't come into use until 1913. In 1913, Mosley helped with numbering the atomic numbers and figuring out the reciprocal of the wavelengths. Mosley also designed the construction of the X-Ray spectrometer. He focused on the cathode tube that served as the tube target. When Mosley had developed the x-ray spectrometer the Bragg brothers had manufactured the first x-ray analytical device. However, the Bragg brothers also had difficulty with efficiency. Later in 1948 Friedman and Birks discovered the first XRF(X-ray fluorescence) spectrometer and many elements could be analyzed. The techniques of the X-ray's were recognized from the 1914 to 1924 winning half of the Nobel Prizes. The x-ray spectroscopy was a source for electrons, but having a large requirement for a vacuum they had to overcome this problem. They started to use fluorescent emission in the sample. [6]

Video

What is X-ray Spectroscopy?

References

  1. xray spectroscopy smu. Web. May 28 2013 Accessed, Author unknown.
  2. 2.0 2.1 spectroscopy Britannica. Web. May 19 2013 Accessed, Author unknown.
  3. spectroscopy ask. Web. May 19 2013 Accessed, Author unknown.
  4. spectroscopy news medical. Web. May 19 2013 Accessed, Author unknown.
  5. basics of spectroscopy chemwiki. Web. May 19 2013 Accessed, Author unknown.
  6. The history of X-ray Karlloren. Web. May 27 2013 Accessed, Author unknown.