|Vatican City State
Stato della Città del Vaticano
Location of the Vatican City (green)
|Government||Absolute monarchy, ecclesiastical and elective monarchy theocracy|
|-||Secretary of State||Pietro Parolin|
|-||President of the Governorate||Giuseppe Bertello|
|-||From Italy||11 February 1929|
|-||Total||0.44 km2 (251st)
0.17 sq mi
|-||2014 estimate||690 (251st)|
|Currency||Euro (€)[b] (
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|-||Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Drives on the||Right|
The Vatican City is a sovereign state that is entirely inside the city of Rome. It is the home of the Holy See, the main governing body of the Roman Catholic Church, and the residence of the Pope. It was recognized as an independent state in the 1929 Lateran Treaty with Italy.
The Vatican City is the smallest country in the world. It has an area of 0.44 square kilometers, and as of 2014, a population of 690. Citizenship is granted to Vatican officials, and in some cases, their spouses, and members of the Swiss Guard, who protect the pope. Other people may be given permission to reside in the Vatican.
The Vatican provides many of its own services, including a post office and legal system. Criminal cases are tried by Italian courts. The Vatican has diplomatic relations with other countries, but does not get involved in political affairs.
Duchy of Rome
In the 7th century, Rome was weakly controlled by the Byzantine Empire, while much of the rest of the Italian peninsula was held by the Germanic Lombards. During this time, the pope began to assume more temporal power in the Duchy of Rome, although he was in competition with the Byzantine dux (duke). The Byzantine exarchate and the pope both had roles in protecting Rome from the advances of the Lombards, although over time, the primary responsibility shifted to the latter.
Between the 8th and 19th centuries, the pope held political control over Rome and much of the surrounding area. The territories he controlled were known as the Papal States and had an area of 16,000 square miles.
The Papal States are understood to have started when the king of the Lombards gave the city of Sutri to the pope in 728. In 751, the Lombards took over all Byzantine-held territories in Italy besides Rome. As a result, the popes sought help from the Franks. The Frankish king Pepin the Short expelled the Lombards from northern Italy and gave the former Byzantine territories to the pope. Charlemagne, Pepin's successor, later expanded the territory of the pope.
In 1305, Clement V was elected pope, and four years later, he moved the papcy to Avignon, France. In 1376, Pope Gregory XI returned the papcy to Rome. During this time, several dictators were granted authority over the Italian Papal States by the Church.
In 1860, King Victor Emmanuel II unified Italy, although the Church, protected by France, retained control over the city of Rome. In 1870, the French troops departed and Victor Emmanuel took the opportunity to seize Rome by force. The people of Rome subsequently voted to join Italy.
After Rome was seized, the pope and his successors secluded themselves within the Vatican Palace. In 1929, Pope Pius XI negotiated the Lateran Treaty with Italy. In this treaty, the pope recognized Italy's control over the territory of the former Papal States and Italy allowed the establishment of a sovereign Vatican State.
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