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Redshift quantization

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Several studies of the galactic redshifts have shown that they favor certain values resulting in concentric shells of galaxies around our own Milkyway a spacing of about 3 light years. This pattern shows up in the frame of reference of the Milkyway's center (galactocentric frame of reference) and observations from Earth have to corrected for by adjusting the Earth motion to see it. Further more computer simulations show that we are located less than 100,000 light years from the center, and that if we were as little as little as 2 million light years from the center, we would see no such the pattern.


This conclusion results from several studies of galaxies all over the sky in each case where the quantized redshifts were reported the paper clearly states that adjustments were made for the Earth's motion a round the Milkyway's center. One difficulty is that precision measurements of galactic redshifts are important to seeing the pattern. In most studies this has reduced the number of galaxies. In one study that considered a large sample they found some evidence of the effect, and stated that the level of precision would have blurred the effect. Ultimately what is needed is a large number of high precision redshifts measurements.


Most of criticism come from proponents of the Big Bang since it is incompatible with that cosmology. They often criticize the relatively small sample of galaxies used in most studies finding the affect, while ignoring the importance of the precision of the redshift measurements in seeing the effect. Another thing missing from the criticism is any reference to the galactocentric frame of reference. It seems that the all studies the criticism is based on fail to correct for the Earth's motion round the Milkyway's center. The Doppler shift from this motion would tend to blur the effect when viewed over the entire sky. The combination of not correcting for Earth's and use large numbers of imprecise galactic redshifts measurements would eliminate the effect from any such study.


The available studies of galactic redshifts seem to support a quantization effect when precise enough data is placed in the galactocentric frame of reference. Since the studies on which the criticism is based seems to ignore both the Earth's motion and the needed precision of measurements, that criticism seems to be invalid. As a result at this time the best conclusion is that the quantization effect is real. This effect is consistent with a galactocentric universe with the Milkyway at the center and there by placing the Earth near that center. It is also an affront to the Big Bang assumption that we are no in a special place in the universe. It is however fully consistent with a bounded universe with the Milkyway at its center.

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