Quakers consider themselves a Christian denomination. They were founded in 1647 by George Fox and believe all people are equal before God, emphasizing a direct relationship with their Creator. They believed Christians are guided by an "inner light", the Holy Spirit, oppose restriction of individual conscience, and have simple, unadorned church services without ministers, sacraments, or liturgy. Quakers refuse to swear oaths of allegiance or bear arms. In Anglican England they were viewed as heretics and subject to arrest, persecution, and imprisonment. One of the best-known Quakers is William Penn, the founder of America's first democratic government.
- "People and Ideas: William Penn." God in America. PBS.
- Powell, Jim. William Penn, America's First Great Champion for Liberty and Peace." The Freeman: Ideas on Liberty.