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Pseudogene

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Pseudogenes are nonfunctional errors rarely with a functional gene counterpart and rarely able to be transcribed. Pseudogenes are dependent on an organisms lifestyle and living relationships as well as rates of genome duplication and mutation. Found in three kingdoms of life primarily study within mainstream evolutionary science has been focused on the similar loci of primate and homo sapien pseudogenes in order to further establish humans common ancestry. The human genome has about 8000 processed pseudogenes originating from about 2500 related functional genes, about one corresponding functional gene for every eight pseudogenes found. There is also a 94% completion in coding regions with a sequence consistency of 75% and 86% for amino acids and nucleotides respectively.[1][2]

Types of Pseudogenes

The processed and non-processed pseudogenes contain unique origins and characteristics.

Processed (retrotransposed)

These are considered to impact highly the genomic structure. There are four accepted characteristics of a genomic sequence that define it as a processed pseudogene, which are;

  1. It shares high sequence similarity with a known human protein.
  2. When aligned with the functional human protein sequence, the alignment does not contain gaps longer than 60bp.
  3. It covers >70% of the protein-coding sequence.
  4. It contains frame disruptions such as frame shifts or in-frame stop codons.[1]

Non-processed (duplicated)

Duplicated, non-processed pseudogenes retain all the same characteristics of their functional counterpart after duplication of genomes occurs.

Creationist Conclusion

Using philosophy or theological perspective by a critical Biblical exegesis of what is past history, there were originally many created kinds as representatives of the diversity of life we see on Earth, and became in essence submissive to sin or death. An alteration of the orientation of nature occurred that now changes organisms through extreme biological diversification mechanisms based on a mode of survival in which the weakest die.

Unique species have many common similarities of DNA causing some evolutionists to rethink their view towards forms of supposed junk DNA as not useless leftovers from ancient ancestors, but ultra-conserved genetic similarities from mutations.[3] Shared pseudogenes between primates and homo sapiens for example, may not always point towards common ancestry, but also present evidence for a common designer due to many factors based in nature. DNA within a template of what became suboptimal design (effect of sin) allows a paradigm to form when similar genetic mutations accumulate independently in anatomically similar yet ancestrally unrelated created kinds living in like environments. This is called convergent evolution, the paradigm produces genetic function similarity and is leading the way toward reasoning against common ancestry.[4] The strict Darwinian notion of common pseudogenes being only clear-cut evidence of common ancestry over the appreciation of any other philosophical position that also relies upon natural mechanisms, has to be reevaluated. What is lost when enforcing strict overarching philosophical principles within modern science is competent scientists, merely because their conclusion interpreted from the evidence is not the same as strict Darwinian evolution dictates. However scientists do reach purely observational (non-philosophical) conclusions like Indiana University Bloomington and University of New Hampshire biologists. They have recently found that the Daphnia pulex (water flea) and the many kinds of parallel introns did not require the assumption of common ancestry. Direct observations and through experimentation, a reasonable discussion formed explicitly discounting the philosophical bias on the origin of life within evolution and never even touching upon creation. It was based on conclusions within nature, recognizing the vast complexity of DNA and genomes. The need for further research is always a must and clearly philosophical conclusions, assumptions, or even extrapolation into the distant past or future cannot be entertained if true observational science is followed.

"The most intriguing finding for me is the multiple instances of parallel intron gains, because this means that Daphnia is in an active phase of intron proliferation," Li said. "This makes Daphnia an extraordinary system to study intron evolution. In addition, we believe our work facilitates a more accurate estimate of intron gain rates, and directly challenges the assumption that parallel intron gains are rare in many prior analyses."

...
"Remarkably, we have found many cases of parallel intron gains at essentially the same sites in independent genotypes," Lynch said. "This strongly argues against the common assumption that when two species share introns at the same site, it is always due to inheritance from a common ancestor".[5]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Millions of Years of Evolution Preserved: A Comprehensive Catalog of the Processed Pseudogenes in the Human Genome By Zhaolei Zhang, Paul M. Harrison, Yin Liu, and Mark Gerstein1
  2. Pseudogene.org
  3. 'Junk' throws up precious secret By Julianna Kettlewell. BBC News Online science staff.
  4. Implications of Genetic Convergent Evolution for Common Descent Posted by Casey Luskin on September 3, 2010
  5. Introns -- Nonsense DNA -- May Be More Important to Evolution of Genomes Than Thought By ScienceDaily. Dec. 14, 2009.

External Links