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Illustration from a thirteenth-century encyclopedic work showing the Christ standing on the Earth with the 4 elements (earth, water, air, fire).

Matter is the physical designation for all material, which possesses mass and occupies space. It is substance of which physical objects are composed. Matter consists fundamentally of protons, neutrons and electrons, which together make up all existing atoms. It is believed that God created all matter on the first day of creation.

States of Matter

Main Article: State of matter

There are three main states of matter which are known as solid, liquid and gas, including the physical changes. Another term for states of matter is known as a physical state which is often described as a phase. A phase is basically a set of a physical system that have a correct composition and properties of a physical state. Usually people are confused between a physical state and a phase.


A solid retains its own shape and volume and does not "flow."


A liquid retains its own volume, but takes the shape of its container.


A gas takes the size and shape of its container.


A fluid is either a liquid or a gas.


Plasma is a special state of a very hot chemical element whose atoms are completely stripped of their electrons. Plasma is recognized as a separate state because it has properties that distinguish it even from gas.

Bose–Einstein Condensate

It is a phase of matter formed by bosons at a temperature close to absolute zero. Under these conditions, a large fraction of atoms reaches the lowest quantum state, and quantum effects can be observed on a macroscopic scale.


Main Article: Materialism

Materialism is an atheistic worldview belief stipulating that the universe is made up of only matter, there is no other substance in space-time reality. Materialists believe that everything, whether physical or psychological, actions, activities, causes and effects are entirely material. This can be characterized as a belief in eternal matter instead of an eternal God, that is, impersonal matter is all there ever was and is.

The prominent evolutionary biologist Richard Lewontin stated the following about the materialist view:

We take the side of science in spite of the patent absurdity of some of its constructs, in spite of its failure to fulfil many of its extravagant promises of health and life, in spite of the tolerance of the scientific community for unsubstantiated just-so stories, because we have a prior commitment, a commitment to materialism. It is not that the methods and institutions of science somehow compel us to accept a material explanation of the phenomenal world, but, on the contrary, that we are forced by our a priori adherence to material causes to create an apparatus of investigation and a set of concepts that produce material explanations, no matter how counter-intuitive, no matter how mystifying to the uninitiated. Moreover, that materialism is an absolute, for we cannot allow a Divine Foot in the door.[1]


  1. Lewontin, Richard. Billions and Billions of Demons, New York Review (9 January 1997): p 31.