|Systematic name||Magnesium oxide|
|Other names||Magnesia, Periclase|
|Molar mass||Molar mass::40.3044 g/mol|
|CAS number||CAS number::1309-48-4|
|Density and phase||Density::3.58 g/ml, solid|
|Solubility in water||
0.00062 g/100 ml (0°C)
|Other solvents|| soluble in acid and ammonia|
insoluble in alcohol
|Melting point||Melting point::2,852°C|
|Boiling point||Boiling point::3,600°C|
|Octahedral (Mg2+); octahedral (O2–)|
|Crystal structure||Halite (cubic)|
|Dipole moment||6.2± 0.6 D|
|MSDS||Material safety data sheet|
|Main hazards||metal fume fever, irritant|
|Other anions||magnesium sulfide|
| Except where noted otherwise, data are given for|
materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Disclaimer and references
Magnesium oxide is an ionic compound that appears as a white, powdery solid. It can also be referred to as magnesia. This compound is perhaps best known for its use as a medication that can treat symptoms such as heartburn or indigestion. It can be formed by burning magnesium ribbon in the air and also occurs naturally as periclase. Magnesium oxide is a relatively safe chemical, but it can be a mild irritant.
Magnesium oxide is a powdery,crystalline solid. It is white in color. This compound melts at a relatively high temperature of about 2830 degrees Celsius and boils at 3600 degrees Celsius. It has a density of 3.58 g/cubic cm.Magnesium oxide is considered to be a good thermal conductor. It also can typically resist corrosion.
Because magnesium oxide is hygroscopic, it possesses the ability to absorb moisture from the atmosphere, forming magnesium hydroxide. Magnesium oxide consists of a magnesium atom and an oxygen atom joined together by an ionic bond.  Due to the strong ionic bonds that hold it together, this compound has a very low solubility of 0.0086 grams per 100 milliliters of water. Like other metal oxides, magnesium oxide is a base, with a high pH of 10.3. Magnesium oxide is not a particularly dangerous substance and is noncombustible, although it can irritate the eyes or nose.
Synthesis / Occurrences
There are many ways that magnesium oxide can be formed. One way in which magnesium oxide is made is the burning of magnesium ribbon in air. This creates a white smoke that contains mostly fine particles of magnesium oxide. It then forms into a white powder consisting of about 90 percent magnesium oxide and 10 percent magnesium nitride, since both the oxygen and the nitrogen in the air will react with the magnesium. One can create magnesium oxide commercially by heating magnesite to a temperature of 600-800 degrees Celsius, eliminating much of the carbon dioxide.
Magnesium oxide can also result from the breaking down of magnesium carbonate or magnesium hydroxide. Both will create magnesium oxide in a reaction that occurs when they are in the presence of heat. Most magnesium oxide is obtained by processing materials like magnesite, a form of magnesium carbonate, and brine, which can contain magnesium chloride. Magnesium oxide can also occur as periclase. Periclase is a mineral that can usually be located in dolomitic limestone.
Magnesium oxide has several different applications. Magnesium oxide's ability to absorb water makes it an ideal substance for preserving books. This property also makes magnesium oxide useful for rock climbers, who apply it to their hands to increase grip. Magnesium oxide is also used in industry and is a component in many different fertilizers and animal feeds. It can also fireproof materials used in construction.
Magnesium oxide can help insulate cables. It is also used for refractory purposes, such as lining crucibles. This compound forms the white coloring that forms the reference in colorimetry.Colorimetry is the study of measuring and forming definitions for different colors based on how most people will perceive them. However, one of magnesium oxide's most important and widely known uses is as a medication.
As a medicine, magnesium oxide can be used as a supplement for people with a deficiency of magnesium. Magnesium is necessary for cells, nerves, muscles, bones, and the heart to work properly. Magnesium oxide also has the ability to cure symptoms such as heartburn, stomach problems, or indigestion. This compound is also used as a laxative prior to surgeries. Some research even suggests that magnesium oxide is helpful in treating migraines.
Magnesium oxide can typically be found as a tablet or capsule. It is normally taken orally one to four times each day.Despite its many benefits, magnesium oxide, like most medications, does have some side effects. These could include cramping and weakness or nausea. Magnesium oxide can produce several allergic reactions, including trouble breathing, hives, and swelling of the lips, tongue, or face.
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