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Lysergic acid diethylamide

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Lysergic acid diethylamide
Lsd structure.pngLsd space filling.png
General
Systematic name C20H25N30
Other names LSD, Acid
Molecular formula C20H25N3O
Molar mass Molar mass::323.43 g/mol
Appearance transparent, water-like
CAS number CAS number::50-37-3
Properties
Density and phase Density: 1.2+0.1g cm-3
Solubility in water 67 g/100 ml (30°C)
Melting point Melting point::82.5°C
Boiling point Boiling point:: Decomposes
Hazards
Main Hazard over dosage
Related compounds
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Disclaimer and references

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is an extremely powerful hallucinogenic drug that became one of the most common recreational drugs of the 1960s. Better known simply as "acid", it is referred to as "recreational" because one can take it without becoming addicted. However, users are known to experience flashbacks to their drug-induced experience and even personality changes Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann was working at the Sandoz corporation pharmaceutical laboratory when he synthesized LSD in 1938. He was working with derivatives of Lysergic acid and on his 25th product he produced one of the most recognizable hallucinogens in 1960s culture.

Properties

Chemical

During the production of LSD, lysergic acid amine (LSA) must be converted into a different chemical compound so it can attach to the other active ingredient, diethylamide. Some chemicals are added to lysergic acid, then heated, to create iso-lysergic acid hydrazide. Lysergic acid amine can be found in substances in nature other than ergot, like morning glory seeds. Reportedly, this chemical by itself can produce a mild euphoric effect. Sometimes, LSA is referred to as ergine, because of its relation to ergot.

Physical

LSD is a tasteless odorless compound. LSD is a hallucinogen formed of prismatic crystals. Though LSD is caused by a fungus grown on the rye of cereal, it is highly addictive and "recreational." LSD can be obtained or sold in bright, often neon forms of tablets to appeal to the eye of customers, but it starts off colorless and odorless. The affects on a person however can be quite dangerous, causing on average 400deaths in the United States per year.

Synthesis

LSD in tablets and pill form

Change this heading to match your content. Are you talking about how to make it (synthesis) or where it occurs in nature (Occurrences)-->Methods for producing LSD are complex and require an experienced chemist. Several methods are known, but the majority use lysergic acid as the precursor. Lysergic acid itself is also often produced in clandestine laboratories using ergometrine or ergotamine tartrate as the starting material. Ergotamine occurs naturally in the ergot fungus (Claviceps purpurea), a common parasite on rye. Depending on the method used, other essential reagents include N,N-carbonyldi-imidazole, diethylamine or hydrazine. Absorbent paper doses (blotters) are prepared by dipping the paper in an aqueous alcoholic solution of the tartrate salt, or by dropping the solution onto individual squares. So, how is the manufacturing of LSD so popular on the street? Well, most drug dealers don't actually make it themselves, they are supplied it buy "Big Dogs" who know how to make this hallucinogen. [1]

Uses

negative effects of LSD

Its not enough to merely discuss how its used. Make sure to also relate "uses" to its "properties"--> The main use of LSD is in the form of a hallucinogenic drug. It currently is one of the strongest hallucinogenic drugs available. Dosages of LSD are measured in micrograms.[7] Hofmann determined that a ideal dosage to experience the psychotropic effects of the drug was between 20 and 30 micrograms. During the 1960s, it was not uncommon to see dosages of LSD between 200 and 1000 micrograms.[8] It was found that the lower the dosage, the better the experience. People who took lower dosages were less likely to have "bad trips". The estimated lethal dosage of LSD is 200 micrograms for every kilogram of body mass.[9] There has never been any report of an overdose like this. LSD is not considered in medical terms to be addictive. A user begins to build up a tolerance for the drug, this prevents regular use or an addiction. [2].

Though the drug isn't as addictive as others, it can still become a very bad habit. The addiction you fall into is a psychological trap. People can become obsessed with the way they feel while on their "trip". The properties of this drug stimulate the brain to for hallucinations and slow your reflexes. Too much intake of this drug could result in suicide, self harm or the harm of others. Freeman, Shanna. LSD Worker How Stuff Works [3].

Governmental Ressearch

CIA logo

During the Cold War the U.S.A. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was very interested in the possibilities of using LSD for interrogation and mind control.[5]. They opened a program to research the effectiveness of LSD in mind control called Project MKULTRA. They would administer the drug to a test subject without their knowledge and study the effectiveness of the drug as a agent of mind control. However, they found the drug to be of little to no help with controlling a subjects mind. Szalavitz, Maia. The Legacy of the CIA’s Secret LSD Experiments on America Times. [4]

The CIA's idea was not very popular when word reached the public. A lot of times the subjects wouldn't even know that they were being tested on. For instance, an actor named Paul Robeson attempted to commit suicide in his hotel in Moscow. His son claimed that this was due to a hallucinogen that a CIA agent placed in his drink.[6] There has been at least one occurrence of a test subject committing suicide due to being give a dosage of LSD without his knowledge. In 1973 most of the MKULTRA files were destroyed and the government ended research of drugs for military purposes. Nofil, Brianna. CIAs Mind Control History. [5].

Video

What is LSD?

References

  1. Professor, Buzz. LSD synthesis Erowid.LSD erowid. web. wrote on May 6 2017. author unknown
  2. Freeman, Shanna. how LSD works howstuffworks. web. Published September 12, 2009. author unknown.
  3. how LSD works howstuffworks. web. wrote on September 12, 2009. author unknown
  4. LSD cia experiments on america healthland time. March 23, 2012. author unknown.
  5. LSD experiments history. Published May 23, 2011. author unknown.