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Coral Reef

Invertebrates are animals that do not have a vertebral column, which is otherwise known as the backbone or spinal column. The term was coined by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck to describe this particular characteristic of animals or rather the lack thereof, but is not used as a designation in the taxonomic hierarchy.

Invertebrates include all animals except the vertebrates (i.e. fish, reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals). Ninety-five percent of the animals in the animal kingdom do not possess a backbone.[1] The invertebrates include important groups such as the crustaceans, insects, arachnids, mollusks, and worms.

Invertebrate Phyla

Demosponge(Pseudoceratina cf. verrucosa)


  1. Brusca, Richard C.; Brusca, Gary J (2003). Invertebrates (2nd ed.). Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, Inc. Publishers. p. 3-4. ISBN 0-87893-097-3. 

Related References

See Also