Inbreeding is reproduction from the mating between related individuals. Inbreeding is a form of nonrandom mating. A mating between relatives is commonly referred to as consanguineous mating. An inbred line is the result from animals being mated brother to sister, generation after generation. Among humans, excessive inbreeding may be avoided with the help of elaborate cultural traditions and religious principles. However in some cultural traditions, consanguineous marriages are preferred and often prescribed as is the case with some followers of the Dravidian tradition.
Measurements of inbreeding
Inbreeding is measured using the inbreeding coefficient, that can range from 0 to 1, which is a measure of of the probability that two alleles are identical by descent. This coeficient is usually denoted by F. It is defined as the proportionate reduction in the frequency of heterozygous genotypes in a population of inbred organisms (HI) compared with the value (2pq) that would be expected with random mating. This coefficient denotes the fraction by which it is reduced the proportion of heterozygotes expected. The formula is:
F = (2pq - HI)/2pq
F = The inbreeding coefficient.
p = Frequency of the dominant allele.
q = Frequency of the recessive allele.
HI = Frequency of heterozygous genotypes in a population of inbred organisms.
The increasing emergence of lethal and deleterious traits due to inbreeding is called inbreeding depression.
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