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Head injury

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An image that shows colorful parts of a head, that can have injuries

Head injuries are damages to your skull, scalp, or brain. They are one of the biggest major public health problems in the world. Head injuries may be only a minor bump on the skull or a serious brain injury. There are numerous types of head injuries, including Concussions, Hematoma, Hemorrhage, and Skull Fractures.

Head injury

This photo shows percentages of different accidents, that caused people to have head injuries.

Head injuries are very dangerous. They are damages to the skulls, scalp, or brain caused by trauma that can cause death or disability in life. They are actually one of the common causes of disability and death in the United States. There can be multiple head injuries such as open or closed ones. Closed head injuries do not break your skull. A head injury that is open, is which something breaks your skull or enters your brain and can cause serious damage. One of the biggest injuries are concussions. Concussions causes change of a persons status of mentalness and can destroy the normal process of the brain. This type of a concussion can be related to sports, with an estimated 1.6 million to 3.8 million concussions a year. Another head injury is when you get a bruise on the brain, that can cause swelling. This injury is hematoma. They're are many more injuries such as fractures and Hemorrhages. All these injuries can cause serious danger. The biggest time head injuries can happen is during sports. Getting hit my a sporting equipment or when two athletes collide. The results and treatments can be different from each other, depending on what caused the injury in the head. [1]

Subdural Hematoma

A real picture of a Subdural Hematoma injury on a person head

One of the head injuries that can occur on people is subdural hematoma. Hematoma is a bruise, when the blood clots outside the blood vessels. It happens because of a blood vessel wall, vein or capillary that is damaged and blood has leaked into tissues where it does not belong. Hematoma can be a small dot of blood or it can be large and can cause swelling and dangerous damage, especially if it happens in the brain. The blood vessels that are in the body are under continual repairment. The body is mostly able to fix the harmed vessel walls by operating the blood clotting and creating fibrin patches. If the repair fails, the large defect allows for continuing bleeding. If there is pressure in the blood vessels, the blood will continue to leak and hematoma will enlarge. The blood that breaks out from the blood stream, is irritating and can cause inflammation with pain, redness, and swelling.[2]

In a Subdural Hematoma the blood gathers in the middle of the layers of tissue that surround the brain. The bleeding happens between the outermost layer which is the dura and the next layer, the arachnoid. The bleeding happens under the skull and outside the brain. When blood gathers, pressure increases on brain. The pressure on the brain causes a subdural hematoma's symptoms. If there is pressure inside the skull and becomes very high level, it mat lead to death or unconsciousness. Subdural hematoma injury can happen from a fall, a vehicle, or an attack. Chronic subdural hematoma, is when small veins on the outside surface of the brain can break, causing bleeding in the subdural space. sometimes symptoms can not appear for several days or weeks. Older people have higher risks for chronic subdural hematoma because the brain shrinkage brings out small veins to be extended and more vulnerable to tearing. When a person gets Subdural Hematoma some symptoms may be consciousness, headache, change in behavior, confusion, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, weakness, and apathy. Treatment for subdural hematomas depends on the condition of being severe. Treatment can sometimes need brain surgery. If it is a small subdural hematomas with little symptoms, the doctors can recommend no specific treatment other than examinations, such as imaging tests. If the subdural hematomas is pretty dangerous than it will require surgery to reduce the pain. Surgeons can only utilize on various techniques to treat subdural hematomas such as burr hole trephination which is a hole that drills in the skull all over the area of subdural hematoma, and so the blood is removed out through the hole. Craniotomy is another technique, which is a larger part of the skull is removed, to let better entrance to the subdural hematoma and reduce pressure. The skull that is removed is replaced after the procedure. The last technique is Craniectomy. Craniectomy is not often used to treat subdural hematoma, but it is a part of a skull that is removed for a longer period of time, to let the injured brain to enlarge and swell without permanent damage. Also medication may help reduce pain, swelling, or pressure on the brain.[3]

Brain Hemorrhage

A photo that shows a Hemorrhagic Stroke with a CT Scan.

Brain hemorrhage is bleeding around or inside the brain. This bleeding kills brain cells. At the point when blood from injury aggravates mind tissues, it causes swelling, known as cerebral edema. The blood gathers into a mass called a hematoma. These actions increase weight on brain tissue, and that diminishes blood stream and destroys brain cells. Numerous individuals who encounter brain hemorrhage have side effects just as they are having a stroke, and can have weakness on one side of their body, trouble talking, or a feeling of numbness. Trouble performing common exercises, issues with walking or trouble standing. Around 10% of strokes are hemorrhagic, or brought on by bleeding into the cerebrum.[4]

There are usually a few reasons and causes of brain hemorrhage. One of the factors is High blood pressure. This constant condition can, over a drawn out stretch of time, and weaken the blood vessel walls. If high blood pressure is untreated it is a noteworthy preventable reason for brain hemorrhages. The second factor is Aneurysm. This is a debilitating in a blood vessel that swells. It can blast and bleed and lead to a stroke. A third factor is blood or bleeding disorders. Hemophilia and sickle cell can both add to diminished levels of blood platelets. Last but not least, liver infections. This condition is connected with expanded bleeding. To know if a person has brain hemorrhage, they might perform some symptoms. The symptoms include headaches, weakness, blurry vision, nausea or vomiting, loss of balance, numbness, or lost of consciousness. Brain hemorrhage can be treated in multiple ways. Doctors can run an assortment of imaging tests, for example, a CT scan, which can uncover inward draining or blood aggregation, or a MRI. Eye exam or neurological exam, which can demonstrate swelling of the optic nerve, can likewise be performed. Surgeries and medication can also treat the injury, but it always depends on the cause or location of the injury.[5]

Concussion

A picture of a head that shows concussion before and after.

A concussion is another head trauma, that happens from a fall or an injury that shakes your brain inside the skull. You can get is from a fall, car accident, sports, or being hit on the head with an object. When a concussions happen people will probably, maybe pass out or forget what happened right before the injury, and sometimes nothing will happen. Our brains is a soft organ that surrounded by spinal fluid and is protection by our hard skull. The fluid that is surrounded around our brains is a protection that keeps our brain from banging into your skull. But if you get hit really hard on head, your brain may strike into your skull and be very injured. Symptoms of a concussion can last for days, hours, weeks, or even months. [6]

Did you know there can be different type of concussions? Concussions are classified as mild (grade 1), moderate (grade 2), or severe (grade 3), relying on the injury and how the person feels. In a grade 1, symptoms last less than 15 minutes, and there is usually no loss of consciousness. Grade 2, symptoms can last longer than 15 minutes, but their is usually no loss of consciousness. The last grade which is 3, usually loses consciousness, sometimes for couple seconds. [7] Symptoms and signs of concussions can be headaches, loss of consciousness, nausea, dizziness, blurry in eyes, hard to speak, ringing in ears, and confusion. So if you ever get hurt on the head, to the point were it hurts really bad, it is always good to go to a doctor and get everything checked out. [8]

Skull Fracture

This photo shows an image of a fractured skull.

A skull is a skeletal framework of the head of vertebrates, collected of bones or cartilage, that helps and protects the brain. A skull fracture is when there is a break in one or more bones in your skull. There are many different type of skull fractures, but they all include with a major impact to the head that’s strong enough to break the bone. One of the fractures can be a closed fracture, also called a simple fracture, it is when the skin covers the fracture area that isn’t broken or cut. Another skull fracture is a open fracture, also called a compound fracture. It is when the skin is broken and the bone moves out. A depressed fracture, happens when the injury causes the skull enlarge into the brain cavity. Last but not least, the basal fracture. A basal fracture happens in the bottom of the skull: the areas around nose, eyes, ears, somewhere near the spine, or the back of the head.[9]

Skull fractures happen by getting hit in the head with an object, vehicle accidents, sport, or other activities. Some signs you get when you have a fracture is blood coming out of your nose or ears, bruising behind around eyes or behind your ears, trouble moving face, neck pain, hearing problems, or not able to see. Skull fractures can be diagnosed by imaging tests, such as x-rays, MRI, CT scans, or cerebral arteriography's. Skull fractures can be treated with medicine, such as antibiotics or steroid medicine. It can also be treated by surgeries, spinal taps, lumbar drains, halo tractions, and neck braces.[10]

Video

A doctor speaks and discusses different type of head inures, and effects and ways you can get hurt.

References

  1. Injuries: Causes and Treatments "Web MD". Web. Accessed 18 October, 2016. Unknown Author.
  2. What is a Hematoma? Web MD". Accessed 18 October, 2016. Unknown Author.
  3. Hematoma Web MD. Accessed 18 October, 2016. Unknown Author.
  4. hemorrhage MedicineNet.com Web. Last Accessed 29 October, 2015. Unknown Author.
  5. Brain Hemorrgae Web MD Web. Accessed 6 November, 2016. Unknown Author.
  6. concussion "Web MD". Accessed 23 October, 2016. Unknown Author.
  7. Concussion (Traumatic Brain Injury) Web MD"> Accessed 23 October, 2016. Unknown Author.
  8. concussion Mayo Clinic". Accessed 23 October, 2016. Unknown Author.
  9. Ellis, Mary Ellen.Skull Fractures "Health Line". Web. Modified 29 September, 2015.
  10. Skull Fracture "Drugs.com". Web. Accessed 23 October, 2016. Unknown Author.