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Gas grenade

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Someone holding a Tear Gas Grenade in their hand


Gas grenade is another major class of grenade that burns rather than exploding. [1] There are a variety of gas grenades that exist. Some include tear gas, Cs gas, chlorine gas, etc. Gas grenades are used all throughout history, tear gas has been used ever since World War I leading up to today. [2] Today we see that the uses for them today are by police for riot and crowd control. [3]

Uses

This picture shows a man throwing a Tear Gas grenade at soldiers using a sling

Tear Gas is used by police, which they use to control crowds and for defense.

Cs gas is warned not to be handled indoors, unless used to get people out, it is also used to disperse crowds if there is an riot. It is told that CS gas can induce panicked behavior if an advisory is not able to leave the area of contamination due to the gas effects. [4]

Incendiary grenades are used for to destroy equipment, vehicles, weapon systems, and shelter. It can also be used to start a fire on a flammable area. [5]

Phosgene, chlorine, and mustard gas were all three used in World War I, which were realized into the trench causing many to die without proper protection. [6]

Types

Picture of a CS gas canister which is looked as to been used

CS gas is type of tear gas, which is used commonly around the world. When being exposed to the spray you can receive serious symptoms like a burning sensation in your throat, increased nasal secretions, chest tightness, sneezing, coughing, and other symptoms. [7]

Tear gas also called lacrimator was first used in World War 1 in chemical warfare. It can irritate the mucous membrane of the eyes causing a stinging sensation, tear gas was also affect your upper respiratory system causing chocking, coughing, and general debility. Tear gas mostly used are synthetic halogen compounds. Although they aren't true gases, they are liquid and sold form that can be dispersed into the air by the use of sprays, grenades, shell, and etc. Cn and Cs are the most commonly used tear gasses, also known aswchloroacetophenone and o-chlorobenzylidenemalonitrile. Cn is more used for riot control and Cs is a stronger irritant that may cause burning sensation to your respiratory tract and involuntary closing of the eyes last only for about 5-10 of breathing fresh air. For protection you can use a gas mask with activated charcoal filters. Beside all the effect it may cause, they are only temporary and can be reversible. [8]

Chlorine gas was first used by the Germans in 1915. The pale green cloud would be released upwind of the enemy position drifting at ground level. The gas is followed by a noxious smell reminiscent of swimming pools and bleach. Once their enemy inhaled, the chlorine gas infiltrated and corroded the lungs. The result of inhaling caused painful suffocation and an excruciating death. The Allies developed strategies and counter measures to fight of the gas. They soon had gas masks which contained chemically- impregnated cotton fibers which were effective protecting the solider from the dangerous gas. Some are able to mask of the gas using a wet towel soaked in water covering their face for protection. [9]

Mustard gas also known as Ypterite, because of its dangerous properties was grew as a popular chemical weapon used against the enemy in World War II. The Germans at first used mustard gas as a paralyzing agent, but they then figured out its power of being lethal to the majority of the enemy soldiers. Mustard gas in its pure colorless form is stored in room temperature, its brown impure form has an odor of garlic and mustard hence its name. More than 6 times heavier than air, the fumes of mustard gas staying underground for hours, can effectively fill enemy trenches, thus killing all that unprotected. exposure to the gaseous form for 4-6 hours, burning sensation may occur, followed by redness. Within the next 16 hours, there will be large blisters appeared on affected skin causing scaring and possibilities of even necrosis. Temporarily or Permanent blindness may occur if the gas came in contact with your eyes. Symptoms of chest pain, bloody coughing, and vomiting happen, death occurs normally after 3 days due to heart failure or lung edema. [10]

Phosgene gas accounts for 60% of all deaths caused by chemical warfare in World War I. The totally about of deaths was more than mustard and chlorine gas combined. At low temperatures phosgene it would have a colorless, though when heated more than 8 degrees Celsius it evaporates quickly. Chances of survival is mild after inhaling this gas, within a few minutes, he is most likely to die from suffocation, due to phosgene aggressively disrupting the blood-air-barriers int he lungs. [11]

History

Police using tear gas against protest

Many types of gas was used in World War I all the way up to today. In 1812, phosgene gas first synthesized by 22 year old British amateur chemist John Davy. He assumed that his invention would be used in more sensible way, but on December 9, 88 tons of phosgene was realized during the trench warfare in France killing 69 me and injuring more than almost 1,200. to this day phosgene is still one of the most dangerous chemical weapons in the world. Often seen to be used during terrorist attacks due to it being easy to manufacture.

Today, tear gas is the most commonly used form of what is used in law enforcement as a "less-lethal" force. Before World War I ended, many family were returning home. The man who lead the Chemical Warfare Service through much of the 1912, Fries, wanted redeploy technology to stop criminals and and for controlling crowds. Tear gas provided many impacts, it gave the police the ability to stop a wild crowd without firing live ammunition. By the end of the 1920s, Many police departments such as New York, Cleveland, San Fransisco, and Chicago were purchasing tear gas supplies. The growth of tear gas gradually improved, many innovators designed improved mechanisms to hold tear gas, including pistols, candles, grenades, etc. It soon reached the point where tear gas was the weapon of chose for those such as wardens, strike breakers, and bankers. [12]

Video

Tear gas information video

References

  1. The Editors of Encyclopaedia of Britannica. Gas grenade Encyclopaedia Britannica. Web. January 24, 2016. (specify whether its the date of publication or last-modified or accessed - i.e. Published January 24, 2016.)
  2. Howard, Brain. Tear gas National Geography. Web. January 24, 2016. (specify whether its the date of publication or last-modified or accessed - i.e. Published June 12, 2013.)
  3. The Editors of Encyclopaedia of Britannica. Grenade Encyclopaedia Britannica. Web. January 24, 2016. (specify whether its the date of publication or last-modified or accessed - i.e. Published January 24, 2016.)
  4. Unknown Author.CS gas PBS. Web. January 22, 2016 . (last-modified January 22, 2016.)
  5. Unknown Author. Incendiary Hand Grenade OperationMedicine.Web. January 22, 2016. (Published January 1, 2001.)
  6. Simmons, Jay. Chemical weapon History Rundown. Web. December 30, 2013. ( last-accessed January 28, 2016 )
  7. Unknown Author.CS Gas NCBI.Web. January 22, 2016. (Published April, 2003.)
  8. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Tear Gas Encyclopaedia Britannica. Web. January 28, 2016. ( last-accessed January 28, 2016 )
  9. Unknown Author.Chemical weapon Alpha History. Web. Accessed January 27, 2016.
  10. Simmons, Jay. Chemical weapon History Rundown. Web. December 30, 2013. ( last-accessed January 28, 2016 )
  11. Simmons, Jay. Chemical weapon History Rundown. Web. December 30, 2013. ( last-accessed January 28, 2016 )
  12. Feignedaum, Anna. Tear Gas The Atlantic . Web. January 24, 2016. (specify whether its the date of publication or last-modified or accessed - i.e. Published August 16, 2014.)