Elam (Hebrew: עילם, ʻĒlām; Elamite: Haltamti; Old Persian: 𐎢𐎺𐎩, Hūjiya; "Name means::hidden") was the eldest son of Shem, the son of grandson of::Noah, according to Genesis 10:22 . He was the progenitor of the Elamites. His brothers were brother of::Aram, brother of::Arpachshad, brother of::Asshur, and brother of::Lud. Elam was also the name of the ancient civilization founded by Elam's descendants—the Elamites—and located in what is now southwest Iran.
The Elamites which dwelt in south-west Persia were known to the Babylonians as the Elamtu, to the Greeks as Elymais and the Romans called them the Elymaci. But, to the Elamites, they named themselves Haltamti and subsequently in the Old Persian language, the rendering of their name is Hūjiya (𐎢𐎺𐎩), in Middle Persian as Huź, and New Persian Xuz. This is the archaic form of Khūzestān which is the old land of Elam to the south-east of Babylonia.
|“||Any attempt to trace the Elamites ethnologically is beset with difficulties. The more you investigate available sources, the more you get the impression that the Elamites were … a race of immutable independence. No relationship with other peoples has yet emerged.||”|
He adds that the glazed brick reliefs depict three different races existing in Elam: white, brown and another so dark that it is almost black.These would include the original Elamites, Riphathites, and Dravidians. The White, or Caucasoid, ethnic group in Elam was the original literal descendants of Elam and may be classified as Alpine racially according to an expert in the field, Taylor.
Dr. Gayre has this to say:
|“||Donald A. Mackenzie, citing C.H.W. Johns, asks: 'were the pre-Semitic Elamites originally speakers of an agglutinative language, like the Sumerians and the present-day Basques, who were conquered in pre-historic times by a people of Aryan speech?||”|
Historian, Los, concurs, maintaining that the Elamites we find depicted on the monuments are round-headed (brachycephalic) and have a receding forehead like the Sumerians; all experts are aware of the fact that they were white and definitely not Arabic Semites.
The Elamites came into unfortunate conflict with Assyria. The powerful Assyrians mercilessly invaded Elam, sacked Susa their capital, and slaughtered many of them. Thus they became eternal enemies. Later, Elam was destroyed by Media (c. 640 BC) together with their capital, Susa. This ended the Elamite power, even though Cyrus, King of Persia, made Susa one of his capitals a century later. Those that escaped migrated to find a new homeland. Where did the Elamites eventually settle down? Who might be the modern descendants of Elam today?
The tribes of Elam were the Anzan, Uxii or Uxians, Armardians, Mardians, Khapirt, Aipir, Messadatæ, Cissi, Cossaei or Cossi. In addition Elam contained the Khuzi or Huzha tribe. The Kassi or Kassite tribes were also known as the Kossai or Kashshu and thus were probably Kassite robber tribes dwelling in north-west Elam. The name may also be spelt Kissean, Kossean or Kossaioi. The Assyrians called these Kassi hill-tribes of west Elam the Kusu. These Kassi were not Elamite by race, but Indo-Europeans who dwelt within their land.
Amongst The Scytho-Sarmatians
What became of the Elamites and the non-Elamite Kushu and the Massagetæ who migrated with them? Evidently, they make up a portion of the modern Iranian population, but it appears that, in antiquity, others migrated into southern Russia and settled along the Don amongst the Sarmatæ or Sarmatians (known as the Sauromatæ by Diodorus and other Greek historians). The word Sarmatian may also be spelt Samartian. However, some writers dispute whether the Sarmatæ are an identical people to the Sauromatæ. Vernadsky notes the following:
|“||It is doubtful that the name 'Sarmatæ' has any inner connection with 'Sauromatæ'; the similarity must be accidental ... the Greeks and the Romans called the 'Sarmatian' tribes ‘Sarmatæ’ ...||”|
In any event, Pliny mentions that the Sarmatians were part of the Scythian hordes. Amongst their tribes were the Alani, Iazyges, Roxolani, Siraces, Aorsi and Antæ; not all of these were Elamites or even descendants of Madai. The Iazyges were also known as the Iaxamatæ or Ixibatai and the Chinese called the Aorsi the Yentsai of Antsai (Antæ) which was perhaps descended from the Elamite Anzan tribe.
In terms of their physical biology and anthropology, Professor Coon informs us that the Sarmatians were White and in no way may be considered as Mongoloid. They conquered western Scythia in Roman times and reached the Carpathian Mountains, naming them the Sarmatian Mountains and are so called throughout the ancient Book of Vles. We know that the Sarmatians were an Iranian-speaking people and that their weapons, implements and artistic objects were comparable to those of Elam and Mesopotamia. In addition, Elamite art 'influenced' the Sarmatians and both Persian and Elamite axes have been found among them. Of course - for they were the Elamites.
It is also of interest that "Sar" in Sarmatian originally meant "Prince" or "tribal chief", according to Vernadsky. In the ancient Middle East "Sar" meant "king" in Assyrian and we have all heard of the famous Persian Shahs. We also find in Strong's Exhaustive Concordance that "Sar" in Hebrew means a "headperson ... captain ... chief ... general ... governor ... prince ruler." Thus the origin of the word is clearly the Middle East.
Eventually, the Scythian proto-Slavs, came under the dominion of the Sarmatians and their culture was greatly influenced by the latter. But after the power of the Alans (and in particular their leading tribe, the Spali or Speri) was broken by the Goths, the leading role was taken over by the Anti or Antes Sarmatian tribe.
The Elamites (also called Halam) were also known as Elymais or Elymæans. The Greeks maintained in their records that the Elimaei dwelt northwest of them in the former Yugoslavia. The same word was used by the ancient Greeks to refer to the Elamites. Lempriere wrote: "Elimea, or Elimiotis, a district of Macedonia, or of Illyricum according to others."
There we have it; a part of Elam dwells today in Serbia. One wonders whether the name of Serbia derives from the Seropi or Surappi River in Elam and that the capital of Croatia, Zagreb, derives from the Zagreb mountain range in ancient Elam. Interestingly, the mountain range Dinara in Dalmatia and the Dinar currency may be connected to Mount Dinar of ancient Elam. It may be no coincidence that the fifth king of Elam was Tata and the word тата (Tȁta) means "Dad" in Serbian. Further, Strabo also has the Elimeia as dwelling in Macedonia.
- Josephus Antiquities 1:6:4
- Pfeiffer CF (1966) The Biblical World, Pickering & Inglis, London, page 217
- W Hinz (1972) The Lost World of Elam. Sidgwick & Johnson, London, page 21
- Taylor, G (1937) Environment, Race And Migration. University Of Toronto Press, Toronto, page 140
- Gayre of Gayre, R (1973) The Syro-Mesopotamian Ethnology As Revealed in Genesis X. The Armorial, Edinburgh, Scotland, page 140
- Los, F.J. (1967) "The Table Of The Peoples Of The Tenth Chapter Of Genesis". The Mankind Quarterly, Vol. 7: 149
- Simon, J (1959) The Geographical and Topographical Texts of The Old Testament. B.j. Brill, Leiden, Holland
- Encyclopedia Britannica, 9th edition, art: "Elam"
- W Hinz (1972) The Lost World of Elam. Sidgwick & Johnson, London, page 72
- Waddel, LA (1929) The Makers of Civilization. Luzac & Co, London
- Cameron, G (1936) History of Early Iran. University of Chicago Press, Chicago
- Hannay, H (1916), European And Other Race Origins. Simpson Low Master & Co, London, page 199
- In the Rig Veda, the god Indra slew the Srbinda who were a non-Aryan people. They were also known as the vibhindu which may be a form of Budini, Vendi, or Venedi.
- Vernadsky, G (1959) The Origins Of Russia. Clarendon Press, London, page 57
- Coon, C (1963) The Origin Of The Races. Jonathan Cape, London, page 198
- Field, H (1970), The Mesopotamians Of The Chalcolithic And Bronze Ages. Field Research Projects, Miami, page 126
- Hoeh, HL (1957) "Truth About The Race Question", The Plain Truth, July: page 8
- Lempriere, J (1788) Classical Dictionary, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, page 222
- Marcellinus, A The Surviving Books of the History Of Ammianus Marcellinus. Loeb Classical Library, London. Translated by J.C. Rolfe, William Howemann, London : xxiii.6, 42-43
- In Search of ... the Origin of Nations by C.M. White. History Research Projects 2003.