Egypt's 11th dynasty
The 11th dynasty of Egypt
Sometimes considered the beginning of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt, the 11th dynasty was based in Thebes and was contemporary with several other dynasties in Egypt including the 5th and the 6th dynasty which were based in Memphis and the 9th and the 10th dynasties which were based in Herakleopolis and sometimes referred to as the First Intermediate Period which lasted about 20 years (when Lower Egypt had no local Ruler).
The 11th dynasty seem to have originated with a Nomarch from Thebes “Intef the Great”. His son Mentuhotep I is regarded as the first king of the dynasty. Intef II, son of Mentuhotep I, was the first king of the dynasty to lay claim to ruling Upper and Lower Egypt but only managed to take as far North as Abydos where he came into conflict with the 10th dynasty kings of Herakleopolis. His son Intef III was the father of Mentuhotep II.
Mentuhotep II was the 5th Pharaoh of the 11th dynasty which as based in Thebes. The son of Intef III. He reigned for 51 years. Around the 14th year of his reign, he defeated the Herakleopolitans (10th dynasty) and was able to consolidate his reign. Around his 39th year on the throne he reunited Egypt. He is considered by many to be the first pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom.
The last pharaoh of the 11th dynasty was Mentuhotep IV. He had a vizier who organized an uprising and assassinated Mentuhotep IV and started the 12th dynasty. This vizier became known as Amenemhet I, the founder of the 12th dynasty which was also known also as Egypt's Middle Kingdom.
The pharaohs of the 12th dynasty had a very different attitude towards the Israelites who had been in Egypt for over 200 years by the time it started and had become very numerous. The 12th dynasty pharaohs forced the Israelites to make mud bricks for their pyramids which were only face with limestone unlike the pyramids of earlier dynasties that were solid limestone throughout.