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800px-Starr 070313-5639 Trifolium repens.jpg
Scientific Classification
  • T. affine
  • T. africanum (African clover)
  • T. albopurpureum (rancheria clover)
  • T. alexandrinum (Egyptian clover)
  • T. alpestre (owl-head clover)
  • T. alpinum (alpine clover)
  • T. amabile (Aztec clover)
  • T. ambiguum (Kura clover)
  • T. amoenum (showy Indian clover)
  • T. andersonii (fiveleaf clover)
  • T. andinum (Intermountain clover)
  • T. angustifolium (narrowleaf crimson clover)
  • T. apertum Bobrov (open clover)
  • T. argutum Banks (sharp-tooth clover)
  • T. arvense (rabbitfoot clover)
  • T. attenuatum Greene (Rocky Mountain clover)
  • T. aureum Pollich (golden clover)
  • T. baccarinii
  • T. badium
  • T. barbigerum (bearded clover)
  • T. barnebyi (Barneby's clover)
  • T. beckwithii (Beckwith's clover)
  • T. bejariense (Bejar clover)
  • T. berytheum (Beirut clover)
  • T. bifidum (notchleaf clover)
  • T. billardierei (Labillardiere's clover)
  • T. bocconei Savi (Boccone's clover)
  • T. boissieri (Boissier's clover)
  • T. bolanderi (parasol clover)
  • T. brandegeei (Brandegee's clover)
  • T. breweri (forest clover)
  • T. buckwestiorum Isely (Santa Cruz clover)
  • T. burchellianum (Burchell's clover)
  • T. calcaricum (running glade clover)
  • T. campestre (field clover)
  • T. canescens (graying clover)
  • T. carolinianum (Carolina clover)
  • T. cernuum (nodding clover)
  • T. cheranganiense (Cherangani clover)
  • T. cherleri
  • T. chilense (Chilean clover)
  • T. ciliolatum (foothill clover)
  • T. clypeatum (shield clover)
  • T. cryptopodium
  • T. cyathiferum (cup clover)
  • T. dalmaticum (Dalmatian clover)
  • T. dasyphyllum (alpine clover)
  • T. dasyurum
  • T. dedeckerae (Dedecker's clover)
  • T. depauperatum (cowbag clover)
  • T. dichotomum (branched Indian clover)
  • T. dichroanthum
  • T. diffusum (diffuse clover)
  • T. douglasii House (Douglas' clover)
  • T. dubium (suckling clover)
  • T. echinatum (prickly clover)
  • T. eriocephalum (woollyhead clover)
  • T. eriosphaerum (woolly round-head clover)
  • T. fragiferum (strawberry clover)
  • T. friscanum (Frisco clover)
  • T. fucatum (bull clover)
  • T. gemellum (Spanish clover)
  • T. glanduliferum (glandular clover)
  • T. globosum (round-head clover)
  • T. glomeratum (clustered clover)
  • T. gracilentum (pinpoint clover)
  • T. grandiflorum (large-flower hop clover)
  • T. gymnocarpon (hollyleaf clover)
  • T. haussknechtii (Haussknecht's clover)
  • T. haydenii Porter (Hayden's clover)
  • T. heldreichianum (Heldreich's clover)
  • T. hirtum (rose clover)
  • T. howellii (canyon clover)
  • T. hybridum (alsike clover)
  • T. incarnatum (crimson clover)
  • T. israeliticum (Israel clover)
  • T. isthmocarpum
  • T. jokerstii (Jim's clover)
  • T. kingii (King's clover)
  • T. lappaceum (burdock clover)
  • T. latifolium (twin clover)
  • T. leibergii (Leiberg's clover)
  • T. lemmonii (Lemmon's clover)
  • T. leucanthum
  • T. ligusticum (Ligurian clover)
  • T. longipes (longstalk clover)
  • T. lucanicum
  • T. lugardii Bullock (Lugard's clover)
  • T. lupinaster (lupine clover)
  • T. macraei (Chilean clover)
  • T. macrocephalum (largehead clover)
  • T. masaiense (Masai clover)
  • T. medium (zigzag clover)
  • T. meduseum Blanche (Medusa clover)
  • T. michelianum Savi (bigflower clover)
  • T. micranthum (slender hop clover)
  • T. microcephalum Pursh (smallhead clover)
  • T. microdon (thimble clover)
  • T. miegeanum Maire (miege clover)
  • T. minutissimum (dwarf clover)
  • T. monanthum (mountain carpet clover)
  • T. montanum (mountain clover)
  • T. mucronatum (cusp clover)
  • T. mutabile
  • T. nanum (dwarf clover)
  • T. neurophyllum Greene (White Mountain clover)
  • T. nigrescens (small white clover)
  • T. obscurum Savi
  • T. obtusiflorum (clammy clover)
  • T. ochroleucum (sulphur clover)
  • T. oliganthum (fewflower clover)
  • T. olivaceum Greene (olive clover)
  • T. ornithopodioides (bird clover)
  • T. owyheense Gilkey (Owyhee clover)
  • T. palaestinum (Palestine clover)
  • T. pallescens
  • T. pallidum
  • T. pannonicum (Hungarian clover)
  • T. parryi (Parry's clover)
  • T. patens
  • T. philistaeum (Palestine clover)
  • T. physodes
  • T. pilulare
  • T. pinetorum (woods clover)
  • T. plumosum Douglas (plumed clover)
  • T. polymorphum (peanut clover)
  • T. polystachyum
  • T. pratense (red clover)
  • T. productum (Shasta clover)
  • T. purpureum (purple clover)
  • T. purseglovei (Gillett)
  • T. reflexum (buffalo clover)
  • T. repens (white clover)
  • T. resupinatum (reversed clover)
  • T. retusum (teasel clover)
  • T. rollinsii (Rollins' clover)
  • T. rubens
  • T. rueppellianum (Rueppell's clover)
  • T. scabrum (rough clover)
  • T. scutatum (shield clover)
  • T. semipilosum (Kenya clover)
  • T. siskiyouense (Siskiyou clover)
  • T. spadiceum (brown moor clover)
  • T. spumosum (Mediterranean clover)
  • T. squamosum (sea clover)
  • T. squarrosum
  • T. stellatum (star clover)
  • T. steudneri (Steudner's clover)
  • T. stoloniferum (running buffalo clover)
  • T. striatum (knotted clover)
  • T. strictum
  • T. subterraneum (subterranean clover)
  • T. suffocatum
  • T. sylvaticum
  • T. tembense (Tembien clover)
  • T. thalii
  • T. thompsonii (Thompson's clover)
  • T. tomentosum (woolly clover)
  • T. trichocalyx (Monterey clover)
  • T. trichocephalum
  • T. tumens Steven
  • T. uniflorum (oneflower clover)
  • T. usambarense
  • T. variegatum (whitetip clover)
  • T. vavilovii Eig (Vavilov's clover)
  • T. vernum
  • T. vesiculosum Savi (arrowleaf clover)
  • T. virginicum Small (Kates Mountain clover)
  • T. willdenovii (tomcat clover)
  • T. wormskioldii (cows clover)


Clovers (Trifolium) are a genus of flowering plants. Clovers are a very common plant that we can find very easily around us. There are more than 200 species of clovers around the world. Clover has a large range in the Northern Hemisphere and needs acidic forest soil to grow. Clover can be used as animal feed because of its high protein, phosphorus, and calcium content.

Clovers typically have three leaves, hence their Latin name Trifolium, which means "three leaf". The rare four-leaf clover is well known as the symbol of luck. The Celtic Druids who lived in ancient England made the four-leaf clover sacred because of its rarity. In Irish legend, the clover is believed to give its owner the gift to perceive the presence of demons.

Body Design

This is Trifolium pratense. There are three leaves, it is netted venation, and the flower color is Red.

The clover is a low growing plant. The stem is straight, it is connected with root, and the root is spread in the ground. The clover is composed with leaves and flower. They have alternate leaves, it's compound usually with three toothed leaflets, It is maxing out about 6 inches with the flowers usually rising above the leaves. The very small fragrant flowers are crowded into dense heads, or spikes. Some clover have the small,dry fruit and usually contains one or two seeds.[3] They usually have three leaves but rarely some clover have 5-9. Clover has long leafstalk. The size of the flower is small to medium sized, usually 4-6 mm. And mostly arranged in heads or spike-like racemes, umbels or very rarely solitary.[4]

All of the clover's leaf color is green, but each type of clover's flower have different color. For example, T. pratense has Red flowers, T. repens has White flowers, and T. spadiceum has dark brown flowers.[4] The clover is a dicots. So the root structure is composed with one main root and there are many lateral root around the main root. The leaves have two cotyledon and it is netted venation. [5] However, clovers have different leaf blade edges. Entire of the T. pratense leaf blade is clean, so there are no teeth or lobes. But T. incarnatum and T. repens have teeth around the leaf blade.[6]

Life Cycle

Clovers have two types of life cycle. One is annual life cycle and the other one is perennial life cycle. Both annual and perennial clovers start to germinate in the fall when soil temperatures are in the 50° to 60°F range. The germination continues throughout the winter and early spring months. Annual clovers grow mostly in a prostrate manner, even without mowing. And The winter rainfall sustains the annual clovers, but perennial clovers are planted in a mixed stand with turfgrass to reduce the need for nitrogen fertilizer application. The irrigation of clover is required for survival of the perennial species during the dry summer. [7]

Clovers are either sown alone or in mixture with ryegrass. Clovers have for a long time formed a staple crop for soiling. Clover grows freely and shooting up again after repeatedly mowing, but it produces an abundant crop and it is palatable and nutritious for livestock. Clovers grows in a great range of soils and climates, so it is appropriate for pasturage or green composing. Clover is a short lived plant on acidic soil, and because of a combination of insect pests, diseases and nutrients balance, This is known as "clover sickness". Because of this problems, clover is managed so that clover does not recur at shorter intervals than eight years, and it grows with much of its pristine vigor.[8]


This is the predator of clover call 'Clover mite'. Clover mite is very small.

Many species of the Trifolium flourish in wide varieties of habitats ranging form in the Northern Hemisphere temperate.[8]But also growing in sub-Arctic regions to tropical regions of Africa and South America. However, at least two thirds of the species of clovers are limited to natural habitats. Such as mountain peaks, rocky slopes, mountain forests, forest clearing, meadows, and alpine zones with elevations seven exceeding 4,000m.[4]

The main nutriment of clover is sunlight and the water. But soil also influences the growth of clover. Clovers grow in light shade, but not very fast. Clover need 4 to 6 hours of sunlight each day. Clovers need moisture as much as possible. After clover establishment, it generally needs approximately 30 inches of rain a year. Clovers need acidic forest soil to grow, and grow well in acid rain areas.[9] Clovers have one strong consumer called clover mite. They are found in Western Australia, Victoria, New South Wales and South Australia. They mostly eat the upper surface of clover. They suck out the contents in the clover and that tends to cause most damage in autumn where they attack newly establishing pastures and emerging crops. That greatly reduces seedling survival and retards development.[10]

Other Uses

Clovers are highly palatable to livestock and are high in protein, phosphorus, and calcium. Clovers provide valuable nourishment in either the green or the dry stage. Clover adds about 55–170 kg per hectare of nitrogen to the soil and increases availability of other nutrients for following crops. So clover value as animal feed in the form of hay, pasture, and silage.[3]Clover is also valuable to insects. Especially Bees are extremely attracted to clover flowers and clover is an integral part of the delicate life cycle of honey bees.[11]

Clovers are the traditional Irish symbol coined by Saint Patrick for the Holy Trinity. Clovers occasionally have leaves with four leaves, instead of the usual three. So the four leaf clover is considered lucky.[8] As early as 200 years before Christ, the Celtic Druids who lived in ancient England made the four leaf clover sacred because of its rarity. Irish legends and writings of Julius Caesar testify the belief that this particular clover gave its owner the gift to perceive the presence of demons. On the other side of the world, in China, people were already looking for clovers to bring luck.[12]


This video explains what the clover is and how the clover grows.


  1. Trifolium L.clover United States Department of Agriculture. Web. Accessed May. 7, 2016 no author
  2. Trifolium Wikispecies. Web. Accessed March. 20, 2006 no author
  3. 3.0 3.1 clover plant Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. Accessed May.8,2016 no author
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Rone, Brenda TRIFOLIUM - CLOVER Discover Life. Web. Accessed May 8, 2016.
  5. Dicotyledoneae(Clover) doopedia. Web. Accessed May.8,2016 no author
  6. TRIFOLIUM Go botany. Web. Accessed May.8,2016 no author
  7. R, smith Clovers UCIPM. Web. Accessed April.25,2014
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Clover New World Encyclopedia. Web. Accessed August.19,2008 no author
  9. Clover Seed Planting Instructions Web. Accessed May.12,2016 no author
  10. Clover Mite Agriculture Victoria. Web. Accessed July.29,2015 no author
  11. Burke, Kelly Clover and Dandelion about home. Web. Accessed May.18,2016
  12. Symbols and their meaning: the four-leaf clover Jweel. Web. Accessed 2013 no author