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CS gas

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CS gas
Cs gas stick diagram.jpgCs gas 3d vdw.jpg
General
Systematic name 2-Chlorobenzalmalononitrile
Other names Tear Gas
Molecular formula C10H5CIN2
SMILES ClC1=CC=CC=C1C=C(C#N)C#N
Molar mass Molar mass::188.613 g/mol
Appearance White crystalline when solid,

otherwise an aerosol

CAS number CAS number::2698-41-1
Properties
Density and phase [[Density::1.04 g/cm3]], ?
Melting point Melting point::95°C
Boiling point Boiling point::312.5°C
Hazards
MSDS Material safety data sheet
Main hazards Skin irritant. Coughing/ choking hazard,

can cause heart of liver damage.

NFPA 704

NFPA 704 svg.png

1
2
0
 
Flash point 40°C
RTECS number 3675000

CS gas is a chemical aerosol used for crowd control, which is known by the chemical name is 2-chlorobenzalmalononitrile. It is one of a group of substances commonly referred to as a "tear gas". It causes skin irritation on any wet part of the body including the eyes and facial area. Tear gas is also listed as non-lethal. CS gas, if inhaled deeply, can cause damage to the heart and liver as well as lungs and can therefore be lethal, but it's generally considered non-lethal. CS gas was originally tested on animals, but it had no effect because of their "protection by fur and their under-developed tear ducts". [1]

Synthesis

CS is synthesized by the reaction of 2-chlorobenzaldehyde and malononitrile via the Knoevenagel condensation: ClC6H4CHO + H2C(CN)2 → ClC6H4CHC(CN)2 + H2O. Two Americans by the names of Ben Corson and Roger Stoughton discovered it in 1928 and the chemical was named after the first letter of each of their last names. The production steps are still the same as when it was discovered. CS is a solid at room temperature and must be heated to form a gas. The gas or solid dissolves in water and is no longer harmful. However, in powder form, it can be very dangerous. To change the solid into a gas, you can heat it, dissolve it in an organic solvent, disperse the powder, or spread it by hot gases in an explosion.[2]

Uses

Drawing of an American ABC-M7A2 / ABC-M7A3 CS gas grenade.

CS Gas is primarily used for one reason, crowd control. There are two types of concentrations: 3% and 6%. The 3% is used for training purposes. The different military branches put their personnel through the training that takes place in a gas chamber. You must remember to wash off the gas from your skin because if not rinsed, it can cause boils and burns since it is a skin irritant. Riot police use the 6% concentration of CS gas to deter protesters and other types of rallies. Police have used the gas in many countries and the Chemical Weapons Convention has banned the use in war to all countries and only 5 have yet to sign the treaty: Angola, Egypt, North Korea, Somalia, and Syria. [3] The Chemical Weapons Convention wanted to ban CS gas for use in war because they feared that some countries would retaliate with nerve agents like Saddam Hussein's mustard gas.

Symptoms

Exposure to concentrated CS gas can lead to blister formation. It is very important to shower as soon as possible.

CS gas can be very painful if not rinsed off the body after coming in contact with it. CS is a skin irritant, causing itching, stinging and erythema, and may cause blistering and allergic contact dermatitis. Burning and irritation to eyes may occur with lacrimation and accompanying blepharospasm. These are symptoms of being on contact with the skin and eyes. Respiratory symptoms are different and they consist of salivation, coughing, choking, and a feeling of chest tightness. It may cause reactive airway disease syndrome requiring medical intervention. If you believe you have come in contact with the gas, shower immediately to rinse it off your body.[4]

Video

A man volunteers to get sprayed with CS gas. [5]

References