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Botany is the study of the life of plants or the Kingdom Plantae. It is a fundamental branch of biology, otherwise known as plant biology or plant sciences. Botanists study plants and their environments. Some study all aspects of plant life, including algae, fungi, lichens, mosses, ferns, conifers, and flowering plants; others specialize in areas such as identification and classification of plants, the structure and function of plant parts, the biochemistry of plant processes, the causes and cures of plant diseases, the interaction of plants with other organisms and the environment, and the geological record of plants.[1]


Main Article: Agriculture

Botanists (plant scientists) study plants, helping producers of food, feed, and fiber crops to feed a growing population and conserve natural resources. Agronomists and crop scientists not only help increase productivity, but also study ways to improve the nutritional value of crops and the quality of seed, often through biotechnology. Some crop scientists study the breeding, physiology, and management of crops and use genetic engineering to develop crops resistant to pests and drought. Some plant scientists develop new technologies to control or eliminate pests and prevent their spread in ways appropriate to the specific environment. They also conduct research or oversee activities to halt the spread of insect-borne disease.[2]


Kingdom Plantae

The Kingdom Plantae includes the - Mosses, Ferns, Flowering plants, Conifers. Instead of phyla, the plant kingdom is broken down into "divisions".

Embryophytes Land plants


  • Tracheophytes - Vascular plant
    • Lycopodiophyta: Small plants with green, branched stems, scale-like leaves, and no flowers. Usually grow very low to the ground. Includes: Club Mosses, Quillworts, and Spikemosses.
    • Equisetophyta - horsetails
    • Pteridophyta - "True ferns" Plants that have roots and stems, but do not have flowers or seeds. Instead, they spread with spores. Includes Ferns.
    • Psilotophyta - whisk ferns
    • Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues
    • Spermatophyta Seed plants
      • Pteridospermatophyta - extinct seed fern
      • Coniferophyta (AKA Pinophyta) - Plants that bear cones. Includes: Pine Trees and Cedars.
      • Cycadophyta - cycads
      • Ginkgophyta - ginkgo
      • Gnetophyta - gnetae
      • Magnoliophyta - All "flowering" plants. These plants have leaves, stems, and roots. After flowering, they form fruits with seeds. Includes most crops, trees, shrubs, grasses, garden plants, and weeds.

See Also