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Asian elephant

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Asian elephant
Scientific Classification
  • Indian Elephant (E. m. indicus)
  • Sri Lankan Elephant (E. m. maximus)
  • Sumatran Elephant (E. m. sumatranus)
  • Borneo Elephant (E. m. borneensis)
Image Description

Asian elephant is a species of elephant known by the scientific name E. Maximus. Elephants are the largest land creatures that God designed. There are two elephant relatives in different continent. One is African elephant and other one is Asian elephant. There are ways that we can distinguish between Asian elephants and African elephants. Asian one has smaller ears than African one and Asian elephant's skin is smooth but African elephant is not [1] and female African elephants' tusks are easy to see but female Asian elephants have really short tusks, we can see Asian elephants' tusks when they open their mouth. [2] In 1978, there was a baby elephant that was born between Africans elephant and Asian elephant. However, the baby elephant died two weeks after birth. [3] Now a day, humans hunted the Asian elephants to get a their tusks. Because, souvenir is made by tusks in south Asia. [4]


When elephant is trying to nip off the fruits by their trunks

All the elephants have thick and dry skins. Asian elephants have small ears compared to African elephants. [5] Asian elephant's mass is about 3000 to 5000kg and their length is almost same as the two beds. As people know, elephants have long noses, we call that nose a trunk. The trunk is used in many ways like they can lift up 600kg, and are used for bringing water and food. So that, food and water can be passed to the mouth by trunk. Also, elephants use it for fighting, breathing and protecting their babies. Usual trunks are 2 meter long, weight is around 100kg- 150kg. [6] Even though elephants have thick skins, their skin can't protect the sunlight. So, they put some dirt on their back or make their backs wet. So that their temperature will be cool. [7] Actually, Asian elephants don't have predators, but the problem is the young elephants might not be adapt the life in herd and they are so weak to grow up that's why they can't follow the herd.

Elephants have 5 senses like human hearing, smell, touch, sight, and taste. Elephants have really poor sight, approximately they only can see the things up to 0.2km. [8] Usually, they shake their head side to side to see the things perfectly. They have really good sense of smelling. They can smell the water, even though the water is far away from where they are. Their nostrils are at the tip of the trunks. They also use smell to distinguish the other elephants from their herd members. Elephants have really good hearing ability. Mostly, their communication is really low range and they can hear the sound of their relatives in several kilometers. As I said, Asian elephant's ears are smaller than the African relatives. Asian elephant's ears are like triangle. Touching is important sense for the elephant. Trunks are really sensitive to touch other thing, because usually elephants touch the other things using the trunks. If you see the elephants, they really like to touch each other. Lastly, their taste sense is also important, because they like to eat. They eat all the time, they eat so much food and drink lots of water everyday. They bring the food or water by the trunks. [9]

Elephants live as a group. People call that a 'herd.'. Usually, 15 to 20 elephants are in one herd. They are all relatives like uncles, aunts, mothers and daughters. The oldest female elephant leads the all members in herd. She leads them to find the food , find the place to rest, and water [10] and Herd is only the group of babies and female elephants.


Usually, Female Asian elephants reach sexual maturity when they are 8 to 12 and male Asian elephants reach sexual maturity when they are 10 to 17. But somehow, they might delay to make babies for several years. Their gestation time is about 18 to 20 months which is 2 years and they can only get one calf per for pregnancy. A female elephant can bear a baby every 3 to 4 years, this gestation period is different depending on the condition of the female elephant. [11] When, newborn elephants come out from the mother's womb, the infant is cared by the mother and other female elephants in the same herd. Usually, the baby elephant's weight is about 100 Kg or above. They can walk soon and try to follow their mother. Also elephants are mammals like humans. The mother elephants produce the milk for the infant elephant and infant suckles until they are 3 years old. [12]


Asian elephants live with other elephants.

Most of Asian elephants live in forested areas hills and mountains place. We can find them in south Asia which are China, India, and Malaysia etc. [13] Female elephants and baby elephants usually live in herds. As I said, the oldest female elephant leads the herd and we call that the oldest elephant matriarch. Male elephants leave their herd with other same aged male elephants when they become adult. However, they leave each other again, so male elephant lives alone. Male elephant approaches to the female group for the baby. [14]

Asian elephants are one of the biggest land animal that eat vegetable, which means they are definitely herbivores. Each day they spend 15 hours to 18 hours eating and will consume around 250 kg of fodder. They eat many things by seasonally, and vary in different localities. They eat fruits of trees, shrubs, and wood apples etc. [15] However, their digestive system is inefficient, so they digest their food only 40%. [16]

Asian elephants are not brave, especially Indian elephants. Mostly they avoid their enemies instead of attacking them. However, when female elephants are with calves they are extremely dangerous to every living things. When they get mad at something, they make their trunks tight and curled up, then trample the victims with their knees or feet. When male elephants get mad, they hit the victims with their tusks. Especially, when male elephants estrus, they are super dangerous to other animals, even their fellows. [17]



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