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Ammonium hydroxide

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Ammonium hydroxide
300px-Ammonium hydroxide.jpg
Systematic name Ammonium hydroxide
Other names Aqua Ammonia
Molecular formula NH4OH
Molar mass Molar mass::35.04 g/mol
Appearance Colourless liquid
CAS number CAS number::1336-21-6
Density and phase Density::0.91 g/ml, 0.88
Solubility in water Miscible g/100 ml (?°C)
Melting point Melting point::-57.5°C
Boiling point Boiling point::37.7°C
Acidity (pKa) 10.09
MSDS Material safety data sheet
Main hazards Fire or Explosion
Related compounds
Other anions Ammonium chloride Ammonium cyanide
Other cations Tetramethylammonium hydroxide
Related compounds Ammonia Hydroxylamine
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Disclaimer and references

Ammonium Hydroxide is a hydroxy salt of an ammonium ion. It is used in a variety of ways such as a simple household essential such as Windex. Ammonium hydroxide is not something to be messed with because it comes in direct contact with you or if you inhale it could lead to some very bad symptoms.


The physical and chemical properties of Ammonium hydroxide is that it is a colorless aqueous solution. The amount of ammonium concentration ranges to 30%. Also, the ammonium vapors can irritate the eyes. This colorlessness solution is pungent and has a characteristic odor.[1] [1]


Chemicals in flasks.jpg

Ammonium Hydroxide plays an important role in food. It is extensively used in food processing as a leavening agent and for pH control. It also has no limitation other than good manufacturing practice. The food that ammonium hydroxide is used in is baked goods, cheese, and chocolates. It can also be used as an antimicrobial agent in meat products to get rid of any pathogens in the cattle from where the meat is coming from. Which makes it much safer to eat.[2]


Aluminium hydroxide (2).JPG

Ammonium hydroxide is used in the industrial world and for in-home cleaning such as Windex. In the industrial world, it is used for pieces of furniture such as tables and chairs to darken the color of the wood or to stain wood that contains tannic acid. In food production, it is used as an acidity regulator and is also generally recognized as safe. In the farming world, ammonium hydroxide is used to treat straws which makes it edible for the cattle to eat. Also in the tobacco business, it is used to enhance the flavor. It is also a manufacturing product for fertilizer, plastic, rubber and, rayon. For the average consumer, it is used as a cleaning supplement for windows.[3]


Ammonium hydroxide is very hazardous to the skin, eyes and also through ingestion. It is also non-corrosive to the eyes and lungs. If it is sprayed on the body it can cause tissue damage and on the mucous membranes of eyes, mouth and respiratory tract. If skin contact is to occur then it can cause burn on the skin. If the respiratory tract is affected then it can cause choking and a shortness of breath. If it leads to overexposure then it can lead to death. If the solution does get into your eyes you must rinse out your eyes to avoid infection. If the solution is to affect your eyes then you must thoroughly wash your self for 15 minutes and wash your clothes. In some case you are to inhale the solution in then, you must move somewhere with fresh air.[4]


Ammonium Hydroxide


  1. author unknown "ammonium_hydroxide" .Web. last accsessed November 28,2017.
  2. author unknown.Questions%20and%20Answers%20about%20Ammonium%20Hydroxide%20use%20in%20Food%20Production.pdf Web. November 16,2017.
  3. author unknown."Ammonium-hydroxide.pdf" .Web. Novmeber 11,2017.
  4. author unknown."msds.php" .Web. May 21,2013.