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Acid–base reaction

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A picture of an Acid-base reaction, with a great example.

Acid–base reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base. When these chemical compounds mix they produce a salt. When acid is dissolved in water it usually has a sour taste. When a base is dissolved in water it usually has a slippery feeling, like soap. An easy way to understand these two types of substances, is their behavior in chemical reactions. Not only the reaction is created in salt and water, but they can be defined by ways that work in the reaction, like donating or accepting electron pairs. When this reaction occurs and form, water and salts it is called neutralization.

Acid-base reaction

Example of Proton Transfer with an Acid-base reaction

Almost every liquid you see will probably have acidic or a basic trait. An acid–base reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base. It is a reaction that is a type of chemical process that exchanges of one or more hydrogen ions (H+), between species that can be impartial such as water or ammonium. An acid is a chemical compound that gives us an image, in water solution, a action on metals. Bases are also chemical compounds that, in a solution, are soapy to the touch.[1] When an acid and a base are mixed together, they react with both of the acid and base properties and produce salt. The acid H(+) combines with the base OH(-)to form water. The compound that is formed by the base and acid is called salt. Both of the hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide produces common table salt, NaCl. Also this reaction of acids and bases to form water and salts is called neutralization.[2]

Models

A picture of the three models of acid-base reactions.

Svante Arrhenius, a chemist, made a way to define acids and bases in 1887. Svante saw that when molecules are put into water, they can break down and release an H+ (hydrogen) ion. Sometimes there can be a release of an OH- (hydroxide) ion. He classified bases and acids by the ions they produce in solution. A solution becomes acidic when a hydrogen ion is released, but when a hydroxide ion is released, the solution becomes basic. The two solutions are called Arrhenius acids and Arrhenius bases.[3]

Two chemists named Johannes Bronsted and Thomas Lowry form definitions for acids and bases. The Bronsted-Lowry acid is a substance that donates a proton, and the Bronsted-Lowry base is a substance that accepts a proton.[4] The Bronsted-lowry bases and acids also come in pairs called conjugate pairs. An example is when acetic acid is mixed with water, it deprotonates in the water to form an equilibrium with hydronium ions and acetate ions. The hydronium ion is then able to lose a proton, and the acetate ion is able to accept a proton. The conjugate acid of water is the hydronium ion, and the a conjugate base of acetic acid is the acetate ion. Another model is the Lewis Model. The Lewis theory is named after a chemist named Gilbert Lewis. Lewis model is more focused on bonding and molecular structures. It includes more material than the Bronsted- Lowry and Arrhenius models. The acid description for the Lewis model is any substance that can accept a pair of electrons. The Lewis base is a substance that can donate a pair of electrons.[5]

Scales and strength

An image that shows strong and weak acids and bases, with a pH scale.

Scientists use pH scale to measure the degree to which a solution is basic or acidic. The scale is basically a meaure of the number of hydrogen ions (H+) that are present in a solution. The pH scale from 0 and up to 14. The distilled water is 7. Acids are always found between 0 and 7 and the bases are found between 7 to 14. Most of the liquids we find today are usually near 7.[6]

Strong acids give protons and ionize. There are only six common acids that are known as strong acids: HClO4, HCl, HI, HBr, HNO3, and H2SO4. Weak acids don't ionize because only a part of their molecules deprotonates in an acetic acid solution. Weak bases are poor proton acceptors. Strong bases do accept protons readily. The best source of hydroxide ions, are the hydroxides of active metals that are NaOH, KOH< LiOH, CsOH, RbOH, Sr(OH)2, Mg(OH)2, Ca(OH)2, and Ba(OH)2 in which are called strong bases. Strong bases and strong acids are always weak in conjugate pairs. The strengths of acid and base are described by the dissociation equilibrium constant. Acid-ionization constant shows the area of the front equilibrium reaction in the development of the hydronium ion, and the base-ionization constant shows the development of the hydroxide ion.[7]

Properties

A picture of Acid and Base properties.

When both acid and base react with each other, they produce salt. Some of the properties for acid, when it is dissolved in water, it conducts electricity, has a sour taste, reacts with bases to neutralize their properties, and reacts with active metals to liberate hydrogen. When base is dissolved in water some of the properties are conducting electricity, has a slippery feeling, and reacts with acids to neutralize their properties. [8] Water (H2O) can be a great example of an acid and base trait depending on how you search it. It can be acid or base in different reactions. Water can react by itself to form acids and bases. The reactions happen in small amounts, so it will not change the experiment that much. The formula is 2H2O --> H2O + H+ + OH- --> H3O+ + OH-.[9]

Acids and bases can be identified by their chemical properties and physical properties. Acids usually have a sour taste. For example pickles and aspirin tastes sour. Sometimes acids can dissolve in a solution to perform an electrical current because they ionize. An example would be when hydrochloric acid ionizes into chlorine ions and hydrogen ions. Electrolyte is when any substance that ionizes to perform electricity in a solution. In a chemical way, acids react with active metals to make hydrogen salt and gas. Bases have more a bitter taste. Not many foods contain bases. The soapy feeling is a reaction that is between the base, the fatty acids, and oils from your skin. Litmus paper can also be utilize to identify stronger bases. In a chemical way, strong acids and bases react to balance one another. A neutralization reaction is between an base and acid in a aqueous solution produces a water and salt.[10]

Video

This youtube video shows and describes what are acid-base reactions.

References

  1. Acid-Base Reaction Encyclopaedia Britannica. Web. Accessed April 10, 2016. Unknown Author.
  2. Acid-base reactions hyperphysics. Web. Accessed April 10, 2016. Unknown Author.
  3. Acids and Bases Are Everywhere Chem4kids. Web. Accessed April 13, 2016. Unknown Author.
  4. Acid–Base Reactions Flat world. Web. Accessed April 13, 2016. Unknown Author.
  5. Batdorf, Brad., Santopietro, Rachel., Cox, Heather., Porch, Thomas., and Wetzel, John. Chemistry. Greenville, S.C: Bob Jones University Press, 2009. pg.399-400. Print.
  6. Acids and Bases Are Everywhere Chem4kids. Web. Accessed April 17, 2016. Unknown Author.
  7. Batdorf, Brad., Santopietro, Rachel., Cox, Heather., Porch, Thomas., and Wetzel, John. Chemistry. Greenville, S.C: Bob Jones University Press, 2009. pg. 406- 407. Print.
  8. Acid-base reactions hyperphysics. Web. Accessed April 13, 2016. Unknown Author.
  9. Acids and Bases Are Everywhere Chem4kids. Web. Accessed April 13, 2016. Unknown Author.
  10. Batdorf, Brad., Santopietro, Rachel., Cox, Heather., Porch, Thomas., and Wetzel, John. Chemistry. Greenville, S.C: Bob Jones University Press, 2009. pg.397-398. Print.